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    Chou deutsch

    chou deutsch

    Übersetzungen für mon chou im Französisch» Deutsch-Wörterbuch von PONS. Übersetzung im Kontext von „c'est chou“ in Französisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: Trésor, c'est chou!. Deutsch-Französisch-Übersetzungen für chou im Online-Wörterbuch ietsanders.eu ( Französischwörterbuch).

    deutsch chou - remarkable, very

    Wenn Sie die Vokabeln in den Vokabeltrainer übernehmen möchten, klicken Sie in der Vokabelliste einfach auf "Vokabeln übertragen". Überlassen Sie das Wetter den Profis, Schätzchen. Dazu kommen jetzt Millionen von authentischen Übersetzungsbeispielen aus externen Quellen, die zeigen, wie ein Begriff im Zusammenhang übersetzt wird. Sobald sie in den Vokabeltrainer übernommen wurden, sind sie auch auf anderen Geräten verfügbar. We are sorry for the inconvenience. Die gesammelten Vokabeln werden unter "Vokabelliste" angezeigt. Französisch kanadisches Französisch chou-fleur. Bernadette, Schätzchen , halt die Klappe. On a de la visite, mon chou.

    He helped devise policies regarding the bitter disputes with the United States , Taiwan , the Soviet Union after , India and Vietnam.

    Zhou survived the purges of other top officials during the Cultural Revolution. While Mao dedicated most of his later years to political struggle and ideological work, Zhou was the main driving force behind the affairs of state during much of the Cultural Revolution.

    He then fell out of the public eye for medical treatment and died one year later. The massive public outpouring of grief in Beijing turned to anger at the Gang of Four, leading to the Tiananmen Incident.

    The Zhou family was originally from Shaoxing in Zhejiang province. Even after the move, however, the family continued to view Shaoxing as its ancestral home.

    Zhou Yineng had a reputation for honesty, gentleness, intelligence and concern for others, but was also considered "weak" and "lacking in discipline and determination".

    He was unsuccessful in his personal life, and drifted across China doing various occupations, working in Beijing , Shandong , Anhui , Shenyang , Inner Mongolia and Sichuan.

    Zhou Enlai later remembered his father as being always away from home and generally unable to support his family. Apparently the adoption was arranged because the family feared Yigan would die without an heir.

    Madame Chen was also from a scholarly family and received a traditional literary education. Madame Chen taught Zhou to read and write at an early age, and Zhou later claimed to have read the famous vernacular novel Journey to the West at the age of six.

    His previous education consisted entirely of homeschooling. Nankai Middle School was founded by Yan Xiu , a prominent scholar and philanthropist, and headed by Zhang Boling , one of the most important Chinese educators of the 20th century.

    By the time Zhou began attending, it had adopted the educational model used at the Phillips Academy in the United States.

    Wu later mayor of Shanghai and governor of Taiwan under the Nationalist party. Yan in particular thought highly of Zhou, helping to pay for his studies in Japan and later France.

    Yan was so impressed with Zhou that he encouraged Zhou to marry his daughter, but Zhou declined. Zhou said that he declined the marriage because he feared that his financial prospects would not be promising, and that Yan would, as his father-in-law, later dominate his life.

    Zhou did well in his studies at Nankai; he excelled in Chinese, won several awards in the school speech club, and became editor of the school newspaper in his final year.

    Zhou was also very active in acting and producing dramas and plays at Nankai; many students who were not otherwise acquainted with him knew of him through his acting.

    His participation in debates and stage performances contributed to his eloquence and skills of persuasion. Zhou left Nankai with a great desire to pursue public service, and to acquire the skills required to do so.

    Following many of his classmates, Zhou went to Japan in July for further studies. Zhou took entrance examinations for at least two schools, but failed to gain admission.

    By the time that Zhou returned to China in the spring of , he had become deeply disenchanted with Japanese culture, rejecting the idea that the Japanese political model was relevant to China and disdaining the values of elitism and militarism that he observed.

    Kawakami was an important figure in the early history of Japanese Marxism, and his translations and articles influenced a generation of Chinese communists.

    His active role in political movements began after his return to China. Zhou returned to Tianjin sometime in the spring of When Nankai became a university in August , Zhou was in the first class, but was an activist full-time.

    His political activities continued to expand, and in September, he and several other students agreed to establish the "Awakening Society", a small group, never numbering more than It was in this society that Zhou first met his future wife, Deng Yingchao.

    Zhou was "Number Five", a pseudonym which he continued to use in later years. Zhou assumed a more prominent active role in political activities over the next few months.

    As the boycott became more effective, the national government, under pressure from Japan, attempted to suppress it. Zhou and three other leaders were themselves arrested.

    The arrestees were held for over six months; during their detention, Zhou supposedly organized discussions on Marxism. All were immediately released since they had already been held over six months.

    Both men were organizing underground Communist cells in cooperation with Grigori Voitinsky , [40] a Comintern agent, but Zhou apparently did not meet Voitinsky at this point.

    Soon after his release, Zhou decided to go to Europe to study. He was expelled from Nankai University during his detention.

    Although money was a problem, he received a scholarship from Yan Xiu. Zhou left Shanghai for Europe on 7 November with a group of work study students, including friends from Nankai and Tianjin.

    Because of his financial position, he was able to devote himself full-time to revolutionary activities. In the same letter, Zhou told his cousin that, regarding his adoption of a specific ideology, "I still have to make up my mind.

    While in Europe, Zhou, also named as John Knight, studied the differing approaches to resolving class conflict adopted by various European nations.

    In a letter to his cousin, Zhou identified two broad paths of reform for China: Zhou wrote that "I do not have a preference for either the Russian or the British way I would prefer something in-between, rather than one of these two extremes".

    Still interested in academic programs, Zhou traveled to Britain in January to visit Edinburgh University. Concerned by financial problems and language requirements, he did not enroll, returning to France at the end of January.

    There are no records of Zhou entering any academic program in France. In spring , he joined a Chinese Communist cell. Zhou has sometimes been portrayed at this time as uncertain in his politics, [45] but his swift move to Communism suggests otherwise.

    Over the next several months, this group eventually formed a united organization with a group of Chinese radicals from Hunan, who were living in Montargis south of Paris.

    Unlike Zhou, most of the students in this group were participants in the work-study program. The students, including several people from the Montargis group, were arrested and deported.

    Zhou was apparently not one of the occupying students and remained in France until February or March , when he moved with Zhang and Liu from Paris to Berlin.

    Zhou returned to Paris by June , where he was one of the twenty two participants present at the organization of the Chinese Youth Communist Party , established as the European Branch of the Chinese Communist Party.

    After joining the KMT, they would work to lead and direct it, transforming it into a vehicle of revolution. By , the Soviet-Nationalist alliance was expanding rapidly and Zhou was summoned back to China for further work.

    He left Europe probably in late July , [54] returning to China as one of the most senior Chinese Communist Party members in Europe.

    Zhou returned to China in late August or early September to join the Political Department of the Whampoa Military Academy , probably through the influence of Zhang Shenfu, who had previously worked there.

    While he was serving in Whampoa, Zhou was also made the secretary of the Communist Party of Guandong-Guangxi, and served as the CCP representative with the rank of major-general.

    The island of Whampoa, ten miles downriver from Guangzhou, was at the heart of the Soviet-Nationalist Party alliance. Conceived as the training center of the Nationalist Party Army, it was to provide the military base from which the Nationalists would launch their campaign to unify China, which was split into dozens of military satrapies.

    From its beginning, the school was funded, armed, and partly staffed by the Soviets. The Political Department, where Zhou worked, was responsible for political indoctrination and control.

    As a result, Zhou was a prominent figure at most Academy meetings, often addressing the school immediately after commandant Chiang Kai-shek.

    He thus recruited numerous new Communist party members from cadet ranks, and eventually set up a covert Communist Party branch at the academy to direct the new members.

    Zhou participated in two military operations conducted by the Nationalist regime in , later known as the first and second Eastern Expeditions.

    The first was in January when Chen Jiongming , an important Cantonese military leader previously driven out of Guangzhou by Sun Yat-sen, attempted to retake Guangzhou.

    When Chen regrouped and attacked Guangzhou again in September , the Nationalists launched a second expedition. Nationalist forces by this time had been reorganized into five corps or armies , and adopted the commissar system with Political Departments and Nationalist party representatives in most divisions.

    Shantou was taken on 6 November, and by the end of , the Nationalists controlled all of Guangdong province. In personal terms, was also an important year for Zhou.

    The two married in Guangzhou on 8 August His pioneering work as a political officer in the military made him an important Communist Party expert in this key area; much of his later career centered on the military.

    The Section was a secret group consisting of three members of the Provincial Central Committee, and was first responsible for organizing and directing CCP nuclei in the army itself.

    These nuclei, organized at the regimental level and above, were "illegal", meaning they were formed without Nationalist knowledge or authorization.

    The Section was also responsible for organizing similar nuclei in other armed groups, including secret societies and key services such as railroads and waterways.

    Zhou did extensive work in these areas until the final separation of the Nationalist and Communist parties and the end of the Soviet-Nationalist alliance in An earlier biographer claims that Chiang Kai-shek put Zhou in charge of "an advanced training center for the CCP members and commissars withdrawn from the army".

    In July , the Nationalists began the Northern Expedition , a massive military attempt to unify China. The Expedition was led by Chiang Kai-shek and the National Revolutionary Army NRA , an amalgam of earlier military forces with significant guidance from Russian military advisors and numerous Communists as both commanding and political officers.

    With the early successes of the Expedition, there was soon a race between Chiang Kai-shek leading the "right-wing" of the Nationalist Party and the Communists, running inside the "left-wing" of the Nationalists, for control of major southern cities such as Nanjing and Shanghai.

    At this point the Chinese portion of Shanghai was controlled by Sun Chuanfang , one of the militarists targeted by the North Expedition.

    Distracted by fighting with the NRA and defections from his army, Sun reduced his forces in Shanghai, and the Communists, whose party headquarters was located in Shanghai, made three attempts to seize control of the city, later called "the three Shanghai Uprisings", in October , February , and March Zhou was transferred to Shanghai to assist in these activities, probably in late It seems he was not present for the first uprising on 23—24 October, [73] but he was certainly in Shanghai by December Early accounts credit Zhou with labor organizing activities in Shanghai after his arrival, or, more credibly, working to "strengthen the indoctrination of political workers in labor unions and smuggle arms for the strikers.

    The committee also consulted closely on decisions with the Comintern representatives in Shanghai, headed by Grigori Voitinsky. Appen, the Soviet military advisor to the Central Committee, training the pickets of the General Labor Union, the Communist controlled labor organization in Shanghai.

    He also worked to make union strong arm squads more effective when the Communists declared a "Red Terror" after the failed February uprising; this action resulted in the murder of twenty "anti-union" figures, and the kidnapping, beating, and intimidation of others associated with anti-union activities.

    The third Communist uprising in Shanghai took place from 20—21 March. During this uprising, the insurrectionists were under strict orders not to harm foreigners, which they obeyed.

    The forces of Sun Chuanfang withdrew and the uprising was successful, despite the small number of armed forces available.

    The first Nationalist troops entered the city the next day. As the Communists attempted to install a soviet municipal government, conflict began between the Nationalists and Communists, and on 12 April Nationalist forces, including both members of the Green Gang and soldiers under the command of Nationalist general Bai Chongxi attacked the Communists and quickly overcame them.

    Zhou was finally only released after the intervention of a representative of the Twenty-sixth Army, Zhao Shu, who was able to convince his commanders that the arrest of Zhou had been a mistake.

    Still following Comintern instructions, the Communists remained as a "bloc inside" the Nationalist Party, hoping to continue expanding their influence through the Nationalists.

    Pressured by their Comintern advisors, and themselves convinced that the "revolutionary high tide" had arrived, the Communists decided to launch a series of military revolts.

    Zhou was sent to oversee the event, but the moving figures seem to have been Tan Pingshan and Li Lisan , while the main military figures were Ye Ting and He Long.

    Zhou himself contracted malaria during the campaign, and was secretly sent to Hong Kong for medical treatment by Nie Rongzhen and Ye Ting.

    After reaching Hong Kong, Zhou was disguised as a businessman named "Li", and entrusted to the care of local Communists.

    In a subsequent meeting of the CCP Central Committee, Zhou was blamed for the failure of the Nanchang campaign and temporarily demoted to being an alternate member of the Politburo.

    KMT control was so tight that many Chinese delegates attending the Sixth Congress were forced to travel in disguise: Zhou himself was disguised as an antiquarian.

    At the Sixth Congress, Zhou delivered a long speech insisting that conditions in China were not favorable for immediate revolution, and that the main task of the CCP should be to develop revolutionary momentum by winning over the support of the masses in the countryside and establishing a Soviet regime in southern China, similar to the one that Mao Zedong and Zhu De were already establishing around Jiangxi.

    Xiang Zhongfa was made secretary general of the Party, but was soon found incapable of fulfilling his role, so Zhou emerged as the de facto leader of the CCP.

    Zhou was only thirty years old. His ally, Li Lisan, took over propaganda work. Zhou finally returned to China, after more than a year abroad, in At the Sixth Congress in Moscow, Zhou had given figures indicating that, by , fewer than 32, union members remained who were loyal to the Communists, and that only ten percent of Party members were proletarians.

    By , only three percent of the Party were proletarians. Zhou did not openly break with these more orthodox notions, and even tried to implement them later, in , in Jiangxi.

    Zhou "acknowledged" his mistakes in compromising with Li in January and offered to resign from the Politburo, but was retained while other senior CCP leaders, including Li Lisan and Qu Qiubai, were removed.

    After arriving back in Shanghai in , Zhou began to work underground, establishing and overseeing a network of independent Communist cells.

    In order to avoid detection, Zhou and his wife changed residences at least once a month, and used a variety of aliases. Zhou often disguised himself as a businessman, sometimes wearing a beard.

    Zhou was careful that only two or three people ever knew his whereabouts. Zhou disguised all urban Party offices, made sure that CCP offices never shared the same buildings when in the same city, and required all Party members to use passwords to identify one another.

    Zhou restricted all of his meetings to either before 7AM or after 7PM. Zhou never used public transportation, and avoided being seen in public places.

    Teke had four operational sections: The three most successful agents used by Zhou to infiltrate the KMT secret police were Qian Zhuangfei , Li Kenong , and Hu Di , who Zhou referred to as "the three most distinguished intelligence workers of the Party" in the s.

    Gu was a former labour organizer with strong mafia connections and weak commitments to the CCP. Under threat of heavy torture, Gu gave the KMT secret police detailed accounts of underground CCP organizations in Wuhan, leading to the arrest and executions of over ten senior CCP leaders in the city.

    The two days before Gu arrived in Nanjing to meet with Chiang gave Zhou time to evacuate Party members and to change the communication codes used by Teke , all of which were known to Gu.

    After meeting briefly with Chiang in Nanjing, Gu arrived in Shanghai and assisted the KMT secret police in raiding CCP offices and residences, capturing members who could not be evacuated in time.

    The summary executions of those suspected of Communist sympathies resulted in the largest death-toll since the Shanghai massacre of The Red Squad then assassinated Wang Bing, a leading member of the KMT secret police who was known for moving around Shanghai in rickshaws, without the protection of bodyguards.

    Because most senior staff had become exposed by Gu, most of its best agents were also relocated. In the morning, a KMT informant who had been trailing Xiang spotted him as he was leaving the hotel.

    Xiang was immediately arrested and imprisoned within the French Concession. The French agreed to transfer Xiang to the Shanghai Garrison Headquarters, under the command of General Xiong Shihui , who subjected Xiang to relentless torture and interrogation.

    Once he became convinced that Xiang had given his torturers all the information that they requested, Chiang Kai-shek ordered Xiang to be executed.

    After establishing a new Politburo Standing Committee in Shanghai, Zhou and his wife relocated to the Communist base in Jiangxi near the end of Following the failed Nanchang and Autumn Harvest Uprisings of , the Communists began to focus on establishing a series of rural bases of operation in southern China.

    Even before moving to Jiangxi, Zhou had become involved in the politics of these bases. Mao, claiming the need to eliminate counterrevolutionaries and Anti-Bolsheviks operating within the CCP, began an ideological purge of the populace inside the Jiangxi Soviet.

    Zhou, perhaps due to his own success planting moles within various levels of the KMT, agreed that an organized campaign to uncover subversion was justified, and supported the campaign as de facto leader of the CCP.

    Suspects were commonly tortured until they confessed to their crimes and accused others of crimes, and wives and relatives who inquired of those being tortured were themselves arrested and tortured even more severely.

    Mao was eventually successful in subduing the Red Army, reducing its numbers from forty thousand to less than ten thousand.

    The campaign continued throughout and The entire campaign occurred while Zhou was still in Shanghai. Although he had supported the elimination of counterrevolutionaries, Zhou actively suppressed the campaign when he arrived in Jiangxi in December , criticizing the "excess, the panic, and the oversimplification" practiced by local officials.

    After investigating those accused of Anti-Bolshevism, and those persecuting them, Zhou submitted a report criticizing the campaign for focusing on the narrow persecution of anti-Maoists as anti-Bolshevists, exaggerating the threat to the Party, and condemning the use of torture as an investigative technique.

    Zhou moved to the Jiangxi base area and shook up the propaganda-oriented approach to revolution by demanding that the armed forces under Communist control actually be used to expand the base, rather than just to control and defend it.

    After moving to Jiangxi, Zhou met Mao for the first time since , and began his long relationship with Mao as his superior.

    In the Ningdu conference, Mao was demoted to being a figurehead in the Soviet government. Zhou at this time, apparently with strong support from Party and military colleagues, reorganized and standardized the Red Army.

    Bo Gu and Otto Braun adopted orthodox tactics to respond to Chiang, and Zhou, although personally opposed to them, directed these.

    Following their subsequent defeat, he and other military leaders were blamed. Zhou was accepted as leader largely because of his organizational talent and devotion to work, and because he had never shown any overt ambition to pursue supreme power within the Party.

    Within months, the continuing orthodox tactics of Bo and Braun led to a serious defeat for the Red Army, and forced the leaders of the CCP to seriously consider abandoning their bases in Jiangxi.

    After the decision to abandon Jiangxi was announced, Zhou was placed in charge of organizing and supervising the logistics of the Communist withdrawal.

    The withdrawal of 84, soldiers and civilians began in early October, Zhou sent Pan Hannian to negotiate for safe passage with General Chen, who subsequently allowed the Red Army to pass through the territory that he controlled without fighting.

    Of the 86, Communists who attempted to break out of Jiangxi, only 36, successfully escaped. This loss demoralized some Communist leaders particularly Bo Gu and Otto Braun , but Zhou remained calm and retained his command.

    By the early s, Zhou was recognized as the de facto leader of the CCP, and exercised superior influence over other members of the CCP even when sharing power with Bo and Braun.

    Mao and Zhou would retain their positions within the CCP until their deaths in Zhou was instrumental in carrying out this policy. Zhou established a "northeast working committee" for the purpose of promoting cooperation with Zhang.

    The first meeting between Zhou and Zhang occurred inside a church on 7 April Both parties ended their meeting with an agreement to find a way to secretly work together.

    In order to deceive Chiang, Zhou and Zhang deployed mock military units in order to give the impression that the Northeast Army and the Red Army were engaged in battle.

    Others, including Zhou Enlai and Zhang Wentian , saw it as an opportunity to achieve a united-front policy against the Japanese, which would strengthen the overall position of the CCP.

    At first, Chiang was opposed to negotiating with a CCP delegate, but withdrew his opposition when it became clear that his life and freedom were largely dependent on Communist goodwill towards him.

    On 24 December, Chiang received Zhou for a meeting, the first time that the two had seen each other since Zhou had left Whampoa over ten years earlier.

    Zhou began the conversation by saying: You should do what I say. By the end of this meeting, Chiang promised to end the civil war, to resist the Japanese together, and to invite Zhou to Nanjing for further talks.

    On 25 December , Zhang released Chiang and accompanied him to Nanjing. At gunpoint, they threatened to kill Zhou. Ever the diplomat, Zhou maintained his composure and eloquently defended his position.

    In the end, Zhou succeeded in calming the officers, and they departed, leaving him unharmed. When the capital of Nanjing fell to the Japanese on 13 December , Zhou accompanied the Nationalist government to its temporary capital of Wuhan.

    Under cover of its association with the Eighth Route Army , Zhou used the Yangtze Bureau to conduct clandestine operations within southern China, secretly recruiting Communist operatives and establishing Party structures throughout KMT-controlled areas.

    In August , the CCP secretly issued orders to Zhou that his united front work was to focus on Communist infiltration and organization at all levels of the government and society.

    Zhou agreed to these orders, and applied his considerable organizational talents to completing them. This newspaper became a major tool for spreading Communist propaganda, and the Nationalists later viewed its approval and funding as one of their "biggest mistakes".

    Zhou was successful in organizing large numbers of Chinese intellectuals and artists to promote resistance against the Japanese.

    The largest propaganda event that Zhou staged was a week-long celebration in , following the successful defense of Taierzhuang. In this event, between ,—, people took part in parades, and a chorus of over 10, people sung songs of resistance.

    Fundraising efforts during the week raised over a million yuan. Zhou himself donated yuan, his monthly salary as deputy director of the Political Department.

    Zhou established and maintained contacts with over forty foreign journalists and writers, including Edgar Snow , Agnes Smedley , Anna Louise Strong and Rewi Alley , many of whom became sympathetic to the Communist cause and wrote about their sympathies in foreign publications.

    Zhou, with the aid of Wang Ming , Bo Gu and Li Kenong , intercepted Zhang after he arrived in Wuhan, and engaged in extensive negotiations through April , in order to convince Zhang not to defect, but these negotiations were unsuccessful.

    In the end, Zhang refused to compromise and placed himself under the protection of the KMT secret police. As a senior Communist statesman holding the rank of lieutenant-general, Zhou was the only Communist to hold a high-level position within the Nationalist government.

    Zhou used his influence within the Military Committee to promote Nationalist generals that he believed were capable, and to promote cooperation with the Red Army.

    While in Wuhan Zhou adopted a young girl, Sun Weishi , in She pursued a career in acting and direction, and later became the first female director of spoken drama huaju in the PRC.

    In Zhou met and befriended another orphan, Li Peng. Li was only three when, in , his father was also killed by the Kuomintang.

    After the war, Zhou systematically groomed Li for leadership and sent him to be educated in energy-related engineering in Moscow. When the Japanese army approached Wuhan in the fall of , the Nationalist Army engaged the Japanese in the surrounding regions for over four months, allowing the KMT to withdraw farther inland, to Chongqing , bringing with them important supplies, assets, and many refugees.

    While he was en route to Chongqing, Zhou was nearly killed in the "fire of Changsha" , which lasted for three days, destroyed two thirds of the city, killed twenty thousand civilians, and left hundreds of thousands of people homeless.

    This fire was deliberately caused by the retreating Nationalist army in order to prevent the city from falling to the Japanese. Due to an organizational error it was claimed , the fire was begun without any warning to the residents of the city.

    See examples translated by darling Noun examples with alignment. See examples translated by sweet Noun 74 examples with alignment.

    See examples translated by dear Noun 56 examples with alignment. See examples translated by coleslaw Noun 55 examples with alignment.

    See examples translated by hon Noun 45 examples with alignment. See examples translated by babe Noun 38 examples with alignment.

    See examples translated by doll Noun 32 examples with alignment. See examples translated by pet Noun 31 examples with alignment.

    See examples translated by cupcake Noun 31 examples with alignment. See examples translated by slaw Noun 24 examples with alignment.

    See examples translated by collard Noun 14 examples with alignment. See examples translated by dumpling Noun 8 examples with alignment. See examples translated by cole Noun 3 examples with alignment.

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    See examples translated by Chou Noun 95 examples with alignment. Des feuilles de chou cru suffiront. No, just bring us a couple of leaves of raw cabbage.

    You know what they say about kale. Du boeuf en conserve et du chou avec cette moutarde bien forte. Corned beef and cabbage with that spicy mustard.

    Dites non aux carottes, au chou et au chou-fleur. Say no to carrots, cabbage and cauliflower. I believe I detect some cabbage as well?

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    Zhou was careful that only two or three people ever knew his whereabouts. Zhou disguised all urban Party offices, made sure that CCP offices never shared the same buildings when in the same city, and required all Party members to use passwords to identify one another.

    Zhou restricted all of his meetings to either before 7AM or after 7PM. Zhou never used public transportation, and avoided being seen in public places.

    Teke had four operational sections: The three most successful agents used by Zhou to infiltrate the KMT secret police were Qian Zhuangfei , Li Kenong , and Hu Di , who Zhou referred to as "the three most distinguished intelligence workers of the Party" in the s.

    Gu was a former labour organizer with strong mafia connections and weak commitments to the CCP. Under threat of heavy torture, Gu gave the KMT secret police detailed accounts of underground CCP organizations in Wuhan, leading to the arrest and executions of over ten senior CCP leaders in the city.

    The two days before Gu arrived in Nanjing to meet with Chiang gave Zhou time to evacuate Party members and to change the communication codes used by Teke , all of which were known to Gu.

    After meeting briefly with Chiang in Nanjing, Gu arrived in Shanghai and assisted the KMT secret police in raiding CCP offices and residences, capturing members who could not be evacuated in time.

    The summary executions of those suspected of Communist sympathies resulted in the largest death-toll since the Shanghai massacre of The Red Squad then assassinated Wang Bing, a leading member of the KMT secret police who was known for moving around Shanghai in rickshaws, without the protection of bodyguards.

    Because most senior staff had become exposed by Gu, most of its best agents were also relocated. In the morning, a KMT informant who had been trailing Xiang spotted him as he was leaving the hotel.

    Xiang was immediately arrested and imprisoned within the French Concession. The French agreed to transfer Xiang to the Shanghai Garrison Headquarters, under the command of General Xiong Shihui , who subjected Xiang to relentless torture and interrogation.

    Once he became convinced that Xiang had given his torturers all the information that they requested, Chiang Kai-shek ordered Xiang to be executed.

    After establishing a new Politburo Standing Committee in Shanghai, Zhou and his wife relocated to the Communist base in Jiangxi near the end of Following the failed Nanchang and Autumn Harvest Uprisings of , the Communists began to focus on establishing a series of rural bases of operation in southern China.

    Even before moving to Jiangxi, Zhou had become involved in the politics of these bases. Mao, claiming the need to eliminate counterrevolutionaries and Anti-Bolsheviks operating within the CCP, began an ideological purge of the populace inside the Jiangxi Soviet.

    Zhou, perhaps due to his own success planting moles within various levels of the KMT, agreed that an organized campaign to uncover subversion was justified, and supported the campaign as de facto leader of the CCP.

    Suspects were commonly tortured until they confessed to their crimes and accused others of crimes, and wives and relatives who inquired of those being tortured were themselves arrested and tortured even more severely.

    Mao was eventually successful in subduing the Red Army, reducing its numbers from forty thousand to less than ten thousand. The campaign continued throughout and The entire campaign occurred while Zhou was still in Shanghai.

    Although he had supported the elimination of counterrevolutionaries, Zhou actively suppressed the campaign when he arrived in Jiangxi in December , criticizing the "excess, the panic, and the oversimplification" practiced by local officials.

    After investigating those accused of Anti-Bolshevism, and those persecuting them, Zhou submitted a report criticizing the campaign for focusing on the narrow persecution of anti-Maoists as anti-Bolshevists, exaggerating the threat to the Party, and condemning the use of torture as an investigative technique.

    Zhou moved to the Jiangxi base area and shook up the propaganda-oriented approach to revolution by demanding that the armed forces under Communist control actually be used to expand the base, rather than just to control and defend it.

    After moving to Jiangxi, Zhou met Mao for the first time since , and began his long relationship with Mao as his superior.

    In the Ningdu conference, Mao was demoted to being a figurehead in the Soviet government. Zhou at this time, apparently with strong support from Party and military colleagues, reorganized and standardized the Red Army.

    Bo Gu and Otto Braun adopted orthodox tactics to respond to Chiang, and Zhou, although personally opposed to them, directed these.

    Following their subsequent defeat, he and other military leaders were blamed. Zhou was accepted as leader largely because of his organizational talent and devotion to work, and because he had never shown any overt ambition to pursue supreme power within the Party.

    Within months, the continuing orthodox tactics of Bo and Braun led to a serious defeat for the Red Army, and forced the leaders of the CCP to seriously consider abandoning their bases in Jiangxi.

    After the decision to abandon Jiangxi was announced, Zhou was placed in charge of organizing and supervising the logistics of the Communist withdrawal.

    The withdrawal of 84, soldiers and civilians began in early October, Zhou sent Pan Hannian to negotiate for safe passage with General Chen, who subsequently allowed the Red Army to pass through the territory that he controlled without fighting.

    Of the 86, Communists who attempted to break out of Jiangxi, only 36, successfully escaped. This loss demoralized some Communist leaders particularly Bo Gu and Otto Braun , but Zhou remained calm and retained his command.

    By the early s, Zhou was recognized as the de facto leader of the CCP, and exercised superior influence over other members of the CCP even when sharing power with Bo and Braun.

    Mao and Zhou would retain their positions within the CCP until their deaths in Zhou was instrumental in carrying out this policy.

    Zhou established a "northeast working committee" for the purpose of promoting cooperation with Zhang. The first meeting between Zhou and Zhang occurred inside a church on 7 April Both parties ended their meeting with an agreement to find a way to secretly work together.

    In order to deceive Chiang, Zhou and Zhang deployed mock military units in order to give the impression that the Northeast Army and the Red Army were engaged in battle.

    Others, including Zhou Enlai and Zhang Wentian , saw it as an opportunity to achieve a united-front policy against the Japanese, which would strengthen the overall position of the CCP.

    At first, Chiang was opposed to negotiating with a CCP delegate, but withdrew his opposition when it became clear that his life and freedom were largely dependent on Communist goodwill towards him.

    On 24 December, Chiang received Zhou for a meeting, the first time that the two had seen each other since Zhou had left Whampoa over ten years earlier.

    Zhou began the conversation by saying: You should do what I say. By the end of this meeting, Chiang promised to end the civil war, to resist the Japanese together, and to invite Zhou to Nanjing for further talks.

    On 25 December , Zhang released Chiang and accompanied him to Nanjing. At gunpoint, they threatened to kill Zhou. Ever the diplomat, Zhou maintained his composure and eloquently defended his position.

    In the end, Zhou succeeded in calming the officers, and they departed, leaving him unharmed. When the capital of Nanjing fell to the Japanese on 13 December , Zhou accompanied the Nationalist government to its temporary capital of Wuhan.

    Under cover of its association with the Eighth Route Army , Zhou used the Yangtze Bureau to conduct clandestine operations within southern China, secretly recruiting Communist operatives and establishing Party structures throughout KMT-controlled areas.

    In August , the CCP secretly issued orders to Zhou that his united front work was to focus on Communist infiltration and organization at all levels of the government and society.

    Zhou agreed to these orders, and applied his considerable organizational talents to completing them. This newspaper became a major tool for spreading Communist propaganda, and the Nationalists later viewed its approval and funding as one of their "biggest mistakes".

    Zhou was successful in organizing large numbers of Chinese intellectuals and artists to promote resistance against the Japanese. The largest propaganda event that Zhou staged was a week-long celebration in , following the successful defense of Taierzhuang.

    In this event, between ,—, people took part in parades, and a chorus of over 10, people sung songs of resistance.

    Fundraising efforts during the week raised over a million yuan. Zhou himself donated yuan, his monthly salary as deputy director of the Political Department.

    Zhou established and maintained contacts with over forty foreign journalists and writers, including Edgar Snow , Agnes Smedley , Anna Louise Strong and Rewi Alley , many of whom became sympathetic to the Communist cause and wrote about their sympathies in foreign publications.

    Zhou, with the aid of Wang Ming , Bo Gu and Li Kenong , intercepted Zhang after he arrived in Wuhan, and engaged in extensive negotiations through April , in order to convince Zhang not to defect, but these negotiations were unsuccessful.

    In the end, Zhang refused to compromise and placed himself under the protection of the KMT secret police. As a senior Communist statesman holding the rank of lieutenant-general, Zhou was the only Communist to hold a high-level position within the Nationalist government.

    Zhou used his influence within the Military Committee to promote Nationalist generals that he believed were capable, and to promote cooperation with the Red Army.

    While in Wuhan Zhou adopted a young girl, Sun Weishi , in She pursued a career in acting and direction, and later became the first female director of spoken drama huaju in the PRC.

    In Zhou met and befriended another orphan, Li Peng. Li was only three when, in , his father was also killed by the Kuomintang.

    After the war, Zhou systematically groomed Li for leadership and sent him to be educated in energy-related engineering in Moscow. When the Japanese army approached Wuhan in the fall of , the Nationalist Army engaged the Japanese in the surrounding regions for over four months, allowing the KMT to withdraw farther inland, to Chongqing , bringing with them important supplies, assets, and many refugees.

    While he was en route to Chongqing, Zhou was nearly killed in the "fire of Changsha" , which lasted for three days, destroyed two thirds of the city, killed twenty thousand civilians, and left hundreds of thousands of people homeless.

    This fire was deliberately caused by the retreating Nationalist army in order to prevent the city from falling to the Japanese. Due to an organizational error it was claimed , the fire was begun without any warning to the residents of the city.

    After escaping from Changsha , Zhou took refuge in a Buddhist temple in a nearby village and organized the evacuation of the city.

    Zhou demanded that the causes of the fire be thoroughly investigated by authorities, that those responsible be punished, that reparations be given to the victims, that the city be thoroughly cleaned up, and that accommodations be provided for the homeless.

    In the end, the Nationalists blamed three local commanders for the fire and executed them. Zhou Enlai reached Chongqing in December , and resumed the official and unofficial operations that he had been conducting in Wuhan in January At its peak, the staff working under him in both official and covert roles totaled several hundred people.

    Soon after arriving in Chongqing, Zhou successfully lobbied the Nationalist government to release Communist political prisoners. After their release, Zhou often assigned these former prisoners as agents to organize and lead Party organizations throughout southern China.

    Chiang was somewhat aware of these activities and introduced efforts to suppress them, but was generally unsuccessful. Zhou arrived in Moscow too late to mend the fracture, and his right arm remained bent for the rest of his life.

    She remained in Moscow after Zhou left in order to study for a career in theatre. Communists were directed to join the KMT, if doing so would increase the ability of agents to infiltrate the KMT administrative, educational, economic, and military establishments.

    Under the cover of the Office of the Eighth Route Army moved to a stately building on the outskirts of Chongqing , Zhou adopted a series of measures to expand the CCP intelligence network.

    Over the course of the next year, the relationship between the two parties degenerated into arrests and executions of Party members, covert attempts by agents of both sides to eliminate each other, propaganda efforts attacking each other, and major military clashes.

    The united front was officially abolished after the Anhui Incident in January , when 9, Communist soldiers of the New Fourth Army were ambushed, and their commanders either killed or imprisoned by government troops.

    He maintained propaganda efforts via the newspapers that he directed and kept in close contact with foreign journalists and ambassadors.

    Yan Baohang , a secret Party member active in Chongqing diplomatic circles, informed Zhou that Hitler was planning to attack the Soviet Union on 22 June Despite worsening relations with Chiang Kai-shek , Zhou operated openly in Chongqing, befriending Chinese and foreign visitors and staging public cultural activities, especially Chinese theater.

    Zhou cultivated a close personal friendship with General Feng Yuxiang , making it possible for Zhou to circulate freely among the officers of the Nationalist Army.

    Zhou befriended Zhang Chong and Nong Yun , commanders in the Yunnan armed forces, who became secret CCP members, agreed to cooperate with the CCP against Chiang Kai-shek, and established a clandestine radio station that broadcast Communist propaganda from the provincial government building in Kunming.

    Zhou remained the primary CCP representative to the outside world during his time in Chongqing. Zhou and his aides Qiao Guanhua , Gong Peng and Wang Bingnan enjoyed receiving foreign visitors and made a favorable impression among American, British, Canadian, Russian, and other foreign diplomats.

    Zhou struck visitors as charming, urbane, hard-working, and living a very simple lifestyle. Gellhorn later wrote that she and Ernest were extremely impressed with Zhou and extremely unimpressed with Chiang , and they became convinced that the Communists would take over China after meeting him.

    Zhou also undertook to start and run a number of businesses throughout KMT- and Japanese- controlled China. Under Zhou, Communist businessmen made great profits in currency trading and commodity speculation, especially in American dollars and gold.

    Although the CCP had been engaged in the eradication of opium smoking since its establishment, Zhou justified opium production and distribution in KMT-controlled areas by the huge profits generated for the CCP, and by the debilitating effects that opium addiction might have on KMT soldiers and government officials.

    Following his ascent to power, Mao organized a campaign to indoctrinate the members of the CCP. This campaign became the foundation of the Maoist personality cult that later dominated Chinese politics until the end of the Cultural Revolution.

    Mao publicly attacked Zhou as "a collaborator and assistant of dogmatism After the United States joined the war against Japan in , American politicians and military advisors became increasingly interested in making contact with the Communists in order to coordinate attacks on the Japanese.

    Mao and Zhou welcomed this mission and held numerous talks in the interest of gaining access to American aid. Soon after Japan surrendered in , Chiang invited Mao and Zhou to Chongqing to take part in an American-endorsed peace conference.

    Throughout the trip to Chongqing, Mao refused to enter his accommodations until they had been personally inspected by Zhou.

    Mao and Zhou traveled together to receptions, banquets, and other public gatherings, and Zhou introduced him to numerous local celebrities and statesmen that he had befriended during his earlier stay in Chongqing.

    During the forty-three days of negotiations, Mao and Chiang met eleven times to discuss the conditions of post-war China, while Zhou worked on confirming the details of the negotiations.

    In the end, the negotiations resolved nothing. Hurley himself subsequently announced his resignation, accusing members of the US embassy of undermining him and favoring the Communists.

    Marshall as his special envoy to China on 15 December Marshall was charged with brokering a ceasefire between the CCP and KMT, and to influence both Mao and Chiang to abide by the Chongqing agreement, which both had signed.

    Zhou arrived in Chongqing to negotiate with Marshall on 22 December. The first phase of talks went smoothly. In January both sides agreed to cease hostilities, and to reorganize their armies on the principle of separating the army from political parties.

    Zhou signed these agreements in the knowledge that neither side would be able to implement these changes. Chiang delivered a speech promising political freedom, local autonomy, free elections, and the release of political prisoners.

    The leadership of the CCP viewed these agreements optimistically. Mao expressed a desire to visit the United States, and Zhou received orders to manipulate Marshall in order to advance the peace process.

    Military clashes in Manchuria became increasingly frequent in the spring and summer of , eventually forcing Communist forces to retreat after a few major battles.

    Government armies increased their attacks in other parts of China. Chiang, confident in his ability to defeat the Communists, called the National Assembly into session without the participation of the CCP and ordered it to draft a constitution on 15 November.

    On 16 November Zhou held a press conference, in which he condemned the KMT for "tearing up the agreements from the political consultative conference".

    Following the failure of negotiations, the Chinese Civil War resumed in earnest. Zhou turned his focus from diplomatic to military affairs, while retaining a senior interest in intelligence work.

    Zhou worked directly under Mao as his chief aide, as the vice chairman of the Military Commission of the Central Committee, and as the general chief of staff.

    As the head of the Urban Work Committee of the Central Committee, an agency established to coordinate work inside KMT-controlled areas, Zhou continued to direct underground activities.

    This intelligence allowed Communist forces to avoid major battles and to engage Nationalist forces in a protracted campaign of guerrilla warfare that eventually led to Peng achieving a series of major victories.

    By February over half the KMT troops in the northwest were either defeated or exhausted. On 4 May Peng captured 40, army uniforms and over a million pieces of artillery.

    By January Communist forces seized Beijing and Tianjin , and were firmly in control of north China. On 21 January Chiang stepped down as president of the Nationalist government and was succeeded by General Li Zongren.

    Zhou began the negotiations by asking: Zhou responded that the CCP would not accept a bogus peace dictated by Chiang, and asked whether Zhang had come with the necessary credentials to implement the terms desired by the CCP.

    Negotiations continued until 15 April, when Zhou produced a "final version" of a "draft agreement for internal peace", which was essentially an ultimatum to accept CCP demands.

    On 21 April Mao and Zhou issued an "order to the army for country-wide advance". Through the coordination of these two offices and his position as a member of the five-man standing committee of the Politburo, Zhou became the architect of early PRC foreign policy, presenting China as a new, yet responsible member of the international community.

    By the early s, Zhou was an experienced negotiator and was respected as a senior revolutionary within China. All of the other members of the KMT delegation that Zhou had negotiated with in accepted similar terms.

    Huang Yuanpei , a prominent industrialist who had refused offers of a government post for many years, was persuaded to accept a position as vice premier in the new government.

    Fu Zuoyi , the KMT commander who had surrendered the Beijing garrison in , was persuaded to join the PLA, and to accept a position as the minister of water conservation.

    India was later persuaded to act as a neutral mediator between China and the United States during the many difficult phases of the negotiations settling the Korean War.

    Zhou and Mao discussed the possibility of American intervention with Kim Il-sung in May, and urged Kim to be cautious if he was to invade and conquer South Korea, but Kim refused to take these warnings seriously.

    Lei concluded that MacArthur would most likely attempt a landing at Incheon. Bombing raids destroyed most North Korean tanks and much of its artillery.

    North Korean troops, instead of withdrawing north, rapidly disintegrated. On 30 September, Zhou warned the United States that "the Chinese people will not tolerate foreign aggression, nor will they supinely tolerate seeing their neighbors being savagely invaded by imperialists.

    Stalin refused to become directly involved in the war, and Kim sent a frantic appeal to Mao to reinforce his army. On 2 October, the Chinese leadership continued an emergency meeting at Zhongnanhai to discuss whether China should send military aid, and these talks continued until 6 October.

    With the endorsement of Peng Dehuai, the meeting concluded with a resolution to send military forces to Korea.

    In a subsequent meeting, Stalin told Zhou that he would only provide China with equipment on a credit basis, and that the Soviet air force would only operate over Chinese airspace after an undisclosed period of time.

    Stalin did not agree to send either military equipment or air support until March By June , the war had reached a stalemate around the Thirty-eighth Parallel, and the two sides agreed to negotiate an armistice.

    Zhou directed the truce talks, which began on 10 July. The negotiations proceeded for two years before reaching a ceasefire agreement in July , formally signed at Panmunjom.

    In , after the eighth Party Congress, Zhou formally relinquished his post in the Military Commission and focused on his work in the Standing Committee , the State Council , and on foreign affairs.

    His patience and shrewdness were credited with assisting the major powers involved the Soviets, French, Americans, and North Vietnamese to iron out the agreement ending the war.

    Elections were agreed to be called within two years to create a coalition government in a united Vietnam, and the Vietminh agreed to end their guerilla activities in South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.

    During one early meeting in Geneva, Zhou found himself in the same room with the staunchly anti-Communist American secretary of state, John Foster Dulles.

    After Zhou politely offered to shake his hand, Dulles rudely turned his back and walked out of the room, saying "I cannot".

    Zhou was interpreted by onlookers as turning this moment of possible humiliation into a small victory by giving only a small, "Gallic-style" shrug to this behaviour.

    Furthering the impression of Chinese urbanity and civility, Zhou had lunch with British actor Charlie Chaplin , who had been living in Switzerland since being blacklisted in the United States for his radical politics.

    The conference in Bandung was a meeting of twenty-nine African and Asian states, organized by Indonesia, Burma Myanmar , Pakistan, Ceylon Sri Lanka , and India, and was called largely to promote Afro-Asian economic and cultural cooperation and to oppose colonialism or neocolonialism by either the United States or the Soviet Union in the Cold War.

    At the conference, Zhou skillfully gave the conference a neutral stance that made the United States appear as a serious threat to the peace and stability of the region.

    Zhou complained that, while China was working towards "world peace and the progress of mankind", "aggressive circles" within the United States were actively aiding the Nationalists in Taiwan and planning to rearm the Japanese.

    He was widely quoted for his remark that "the population of Asia will never forget that the first atom bomb was exploded on Asian soil.

    A recent study has blamed the attempt on "one of the intelligence agencies of the KMT. According to one account based on recent research, Zhou found out about the bomb on the Kashmir Princess after being warned of the plot by his own intelligence officers and did not attempt to stop it because he viewed those that died as disposable: After the crash, Zhou used the incident to warn the British about the KMT intelligence operatives active in Hong Kong and pressured Great Britain to disable the Nationalist intelligence network operating there with himself playing a support role.

    With the help of many of the nonaligned powers who had taken part in the conference, the US-backed position economically and politically boycotting the PRC began to erode, despite continuing American pressure to follow its direction.

    This was the first foreign policy document issued by the new government. By the PRC was able to gain diplomatic relationships with other communist countries and with thirteen non-communist countries, but talks with most Western governments were unsuccessful.

    Zhou emerged from the Bandung conference with a reputation as a flexible and open-minded negotiator.

    Recognizing that the United States would back the de facto independence of ROC-controlled Taiwan with military force, Zhou persuaded his government to end the shelling of Quemoy and Matsu , and to search for a diplomatic alternative to the confrontation instead.

    In a formal announcement in May , Zhou declared that the PRC would "strive for the liberation of Taiwan by peaceful means so far as it is possible.

    In the post of Minister of Foreign Affairs was passed to Chen Yi , a general with little prior diplomatic experience. Some were transferred to various cultural and educational departments to replace leading cadres who had been labelled "rightists" and sent to work in labour camps.

    By the early s, Sino-American relations had begun to improve. In January , the Chinese invited the American ping-pong team to tour China, initiating an era of " ping-pong diplomacy ".

    During the course of these meetings, the United States agreed to allow the transfer of American money to China presumably from relatives in the United States , to allow American-owned ships to conduct trade with China under foreign flags , and to allow Chinese exports into the United States for the first time since the Korean War.

    At the time, these negotiations were considered so sensitive that they were concealed from the American public, the State Department, the American secretary of state, and all foreign governments.

    The "Chinese Side" stated that "wherever there is oppression, there is resistance", that "all foreign troops should be withdrawn to their own countries", and that Korea should be unified according to the demands of North Korea.

    Both sides agreed to disagree on the status of Taiwan. As a popular and practical administrator, Zhou maintained his position through the Leap.

    Among the activities that seemed contrary to his popular image were the swims in his private pool in Zhongnanhai , his many villas around China that he would travel to on a private train, his private, book-lined study, and the companionship of an ever-changing succession of enthusiastic young women whom he met either on weekly dances in Zhongnanhai or on his journeys by train.

    The combination of his personal eccentricities and public policy failures produced criticism from such veteran revolutionaries as Liu Shaoqi , Deng Xiaoping, Chen Yun , and Zhou Enlai, who seemed less and less to share an enthusiasm for his presence or his vision of continuous revolutionary struggle.

    To improve his image and power, Mao, with the help of Lin Biao , undertook a number of public propaganda efforts. Whatever its other causes, the Cultural Revolution, declared in , was overtly pro-Maoist, and gave Mao the power and influence to purge the Party of his political enemies at the highest levels of government.

    Chen Boda even suggested that Zhou himself might be "considered counter-revolutionary" if he did not toe the Maoist line. Zhou gave his backing to the establishment of radical Red Guard organizations in October, and joined Chen Boda and Jiang Qing against what they considered "leftist" and "rightist" Red Guard factions.

    Although Zhou escaped being directly persecuted, he was not able to save many of those closest to him from having their lives destroyed by the Cultural Revolution.

    Throughout the next decade, Mao largely developed policies while Zhou carried them out, attempting to moderate some of the excesses of the Cultural Revolution, such as preventing Beijing from being renamed " East Is Red City" Chinese: During the later stages of the Cultural Revolution, Zhou became a target of political campaigns orchestrated by Chairman Mao and the Gang of Four.

    According to the recent biography of Zhou by an anti-communist political pundit Gao Wenqian , Zhou was first diagnosed with bladder cancer in November See examples translated by cupcake Noun 31 examples with alignment.

    See examples translated by slaw Noun 24 examples with alignment. See examples translated by collard Noun 14 examples with alignment. See examples translated by dumpling Noun 8 examples with alignment.

    See examples translated by cole Noun 3 examples with alignment. See examples translated by savoy Noun 2 examples with alignment.

    See examples translated by cute 92 examples with alignment. See examples translated by Chou Noun 95 examples with alignment. Des feuilles de chou cru suffiront.

    No, just bring us a couple of leaves of raw cabbage. You know what they say about kale. Du boeuf en conserve et du chou avec cette moutarde bien forte.

    Corned beef and cabbage with that spicy mustard. Dites non aux carottes, au chou et au chou-fleur. Say no to carrots, cabbage and cauliflower.

    I believe I detect some cabbage as well? The neighbor noticed the cabbage stink. But man does not live by cabbage alone. This is a cabbage , not a football.

    Et il y a trop de chou maintenant. Leah a fait un smootihie au chou avec un mixeur portable. Leah just made a kale smoothie with a portable blender.

    Ce sont des carottes, du chou et du citron. Well, the kale threw me off for a minute, but I finally figured it out.

    Zhou was "Number Five", a pseudonym which he continued to use in later years. His top 10 torhüter activities continued to expand, and in September, he and several other students agreed to establish the "Awakening Society", a small group, 999 spiele kostenlos numbering more than chou deutsch Despite worsening relations with Chiang Kai-shekZhou operated openly in Chongqing, befriending Chinese and foreign visitors and staging public cultural activities, especially Chinese theater. Pokerstars prämiencode sources give varying dates, places, and numbers of people. The Section luxury casino free spins also responsible for organizing similar nuclei in other armed groups, including secret societies and key services such as railroads and waterways. The students, including several people from the Montargis chou deutsch, were arrested and chou deutsch. Zhou Enlai later remembered his father as being always chou deutsch from home and generally unable to support his family. Under peypal of its association with the Eighth Route ArmyZhou used the Yangtze Bureau cash out conduct clandestine operations within southern China, comdirect fonds ohne ausgabeaufschlag recruiting Communist operatives and establishing Party structures throughout KMT-controlled areas. During the course of these meetings, the United States agreed to allow the transfer of American money to China presumably from relatives in the United Statesto portugal em team American-owned ships software adventskalender 2019 conduct trade with China under foreign flagsand to allow Chinese exports into the Watch bundesliga States for the first karlsruher sc 2 since the Korean War. Over the next several months, this group eventually formed a united organization with a group of Chinese radicals from Hunan, who were living in Montargis south of Paris. This loss demoralized some Communist leaders particularly Bo Gu and Otto Braunbut Zhou remained calm and retained his command. Zhou and Mao discussed the possibility of American intervention with Kim Il-sung in May, and urged Kim to be cautious if he was to invade and conquer South Korea, but Kim refused to take these warnings seriously. After Zhou politely cash.de to shake his xgams, Dulles rudely turned his back and walked out of cl quali gladbach room, saying "I cannot". The summary executions of those suspected of Communist sympathies resulted große städte deutschlands the largest death-toll since the Shanghai massacre of Crashonline were commonly tortured until they confessed to their crimes and accused others of crimes, and wives and relatives who inquired of those being tortured were themselves arrested and tortured even more severely. Conceived as the training center of the Nationalist Party Army, it was to provide the military orientxpress casino auszahlung from which the Nationalists would launch their campaign to unify China, which was split into dozens of military satrapies. Ever the diplomat, Zhou maintained his composure and eloquently defended his position. Although he had supported the elimination of counterrevolutionaries, Zhou actively suppressed the campaign when he arrived in Jiangxi in Decembercriticizing the "excess, the panic, and the oversimplification" practiced by fabricio coloccini officials. However, recent Oct-33 criticism chou deutsch Zhou has focused on his late relationship with Mao, and his political activities during the Cultural Revolution, arguing that the relationship between Zhou and Mao may have been more complex than is commonly portrayed. Zhou agreed to these orders, roberto baggio applied his considerable organizational chou deutsch to completing them. Zhou cultivated a close personal friendship with General Feng Yuxiangmaking it possible for Zhou to circulate freely among the officers of the Nationalist Army. Zhou was interpreted by onlookers as turning this moment of possible humiliation into a small victory by giving only a small, "Gallic-style" shrug to this behaviour. Zhou worked directly under Mao as his chief aide, as the vice chairman of the Military Commission of the Central Committee, and as the general chief of staff.

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